Avoid digital conversion problems and make your editor
and book designer happy by following these proven book manuscript formatting guidelines
from Barbara Brabec, editor and self-publishing author
"I don't usually contact folks concerning their websites, however
I just had to say that I think that your Book Manuscript Formatting
Tips advice is outstanding. In fact, I feel it's the best and most
helpful on the Internet (and trust me, I've seen a LOT)."
~ Colleen Barrett, Freelance Videographer
BEGINNING AUTHORS seem to think they should
"pretty up" their manuscript with different fonts and font sizes, boldface
headings, underline content for emphasis, and so on, but that's a big mistake.
As this article explains, this only muddies the editorial and self-publishing
BARBARA'S FIRST POD book has received many five-star reviews
on Amazon, both for its subject matter and its writing.
Beginning with a book manuscript that was formatted according to the
guidelines in this article, she was her own editor, book designer, and
typesetter. She also conceived the cover design, which was implemented by
someone else who had the needed software.
Working entirely in MS Word, she wrote, designed and typeset her
Word's easy-to-use style sheet. The finished typeset document was then converted to PDF
for submission to POD printer Lightning Source.
Personal Aside: Note that Amazon's "Look Inside the
Book" shows the eBook formatting, not the typesetting because I chose not to
authorize this feature when I published the POD edition. I was surprised when,
after publishing the eBook, that Amazon was giving interested
buyers of the print edition a look at the eBook formatting.
Copyright © 2000-2016 by Barbara Brabec. All Rights Reserved.
Book Manuscript Formatting Tips
An Editor's Guidelines for Authors Who Are
Self-Publishing POD Books or eBooks
by Barbara Brabec
WHETHER YOU PLAN to publish your own book or
hope to attract the interest of a trade publisher, writing your book in MS Word is
an important first step to success. And the first thing you should do before you
type "word one" of your book is set up your master book document file according
to the specific guidelines below.
As the author of several trade books published by various publishers between 1979-2006,
I wrote exclusively in WordPerfect, and I still
prefer this word processor for writing articles for my websites because it gives
me clean code that doesn't have to be run through Notepad before I drop content
into my WordPress blog or a new FrontPage template. My
publishers had no problem with WordPerfect documents, but things
have changed since digital publishing became the norm. I suspect that all trade
book publishers today require manuscripts written in Word.
Certainly if you plan to
publish your own book, you must write in Word because these documents are more easily
converted to the digital files required by POD printers and eBook publishing services.
In fact, Amazon suggests that when publishing for the Kindle you should save
your book manuscript file as a .doc file (not .docx) because
many publishers have reported conversion errors with Word documents saved with
the .docx extension. "For self publishing in general, Word 2007 is a sizable step backward," confirms
Aaron Shepard on his New Self Publishing blog.
NOTE: If you're using Word 2007, the .docx
extension appears to be the default, but you do have the option of saving files with the .doc extension, and this is advisable
if you regularly send attachments to people with older versions of Word on their
computer. (I couldn't open the first .docx file I received until I downloaded
some special file for this purpose.)
How to Format a Book Manuscript for Editing,
Typesetting, and/or eBook Publication
First, except for italics, your book manuscript should be devoid of ALL—repeat, ALL—formatting
until it has been completely edited and ready for typesetting as a print book.
PLAIN is the keyword here. (If you plan to publish
an eBook, different formatting of the manuscript will be required—a topic
that can only be briefly discussed below.)
Since I first began to edit book manuscripts for clients in 2004, I've never
received what I would call "a clean manuscript" for editing—"clean"
meaning the way I was always required by my book publishers to submit a
manuscript to them. This has been frustrating to me and has often caused me hours of extra work that
sometimes had to be billed to the client. (One client actually tried to typeset her book—and
very badly at that—before deciding
it should be professionally edited. I took the job because she was in a bind,
but this job was frustrating to both of us, and so many changes needed to be
made to the book's content that she had to hire a professional designer to
reformat the book for publication after I'd cleaned up the text.)
Beginning authors seem to think that they should "pretty up" their
manuscript with different fonts and font sizes, boldface headings, underline
content for emphasis, and so on, but this only muddies the editorial and
I cannot overestimate the importance of keeping your
book manuscript CLEAN OF ALL FORMATTING, except for italics.
Any formatting or style sheet you
have used in your manuscript will have to be removed before a book can be
electronically typeset because Word's style sheet isn't compatible with the style sheet your
typesetter will be using. And even if you decide to design and typeset your own book
using Word (as I did with my POD memoir), you will
need to start from ground zero after your content has been completely edited.
Designing a book requires considerable thought and design skill, and, as the writing progresses, you may
find, as I did, that your book may call for a completely different kind of design than
originally envisioned. Unless you have experience in this area, book design is a job best left to an expert. What you should do as a
writer is focus on perfecting your book's content.
Here are SPECIFIC formatting guidelines you should use
when writing your book (with the most important settings highlighted):
MARGINS AND PAGE SETUP. Set page
margins to one-inch all around, and number the pages for use during the editing
process. While trade book publishers may want to see a manuscript with a header on every page that includes
author's name and book title and a footer that contains the page number, the author who plans to
self-publish either a POD book or eBook should have NOTHING in the header box
and only the page number in the footer.
In a self-published print book, the header will be added
by the typesetter. In an eBook, both the header and footer must be deleted
before the conversion process can begin.
JUSTIFICATION. Do not justify text; use LEFT
alignment instead. (This is the only way to detect spacing problems in the manuscript during
editing, and it's absolutely necessary for an eBook edition.)
FONT. Use the same font and font size throughout the book for both text and headings.
(Remember that you're just WRITING, not DESIGNING the book.) Select a standard font face such as Times Roman or Verdana in 12-point size. Use
italics in the text where appropriate, but no underlines.
(Underlined text is okay in an eBook, but this formatting should not be done
until the editing process is complete since the eBook formatting itself is a
different process and underline will then become a "style" used by the eBook
Generally avoid the use of all CAPS
in the text or headings. Headings may be centered if desired, but it's best not
to boldface them as headings are automatically styled that way, and in the
proper font size as well, by the book
designer or eBook formatter. In the text, CAPS are considered shouting, just as
they are on the Web, so use them with discretion.
SYMBOLS. MS Word offers many symbols for use in
formatting, such as the copyright sign, em-dash (long dash), and ellipsis mark
(three dots in a row). These are fine to use in a book that is to be edited
prior to typesetting, but except for the copyright symbol and long dash, symbols are
problematic when doing an ePub conversion of a book for the Nook
or Smashwords, and all the ebook formatting guides suggest they be avoided.
Do NOT use a single hyphen with a space before and after and call it a dash.
Use the em dash symbol OR two hyphens together with a space before and space
after -- (like this), which any eBook device can read correctly. Personally, I use the em-dash in my eBook manuscripts
for the Kindle—which looks like this with no space before or after—because this is how the mark
is used in print books. When I'm ready to do the eBook conversions, I create two
documents, one for Amazon, the other for the ePub version of the book. In the
ePub version, I then do a global search-and-replace to change the em dash to the two-hyphens
dash mentioned above.
If you use the ellipsis symbol, it
must be replaced with a manual ellipsis of three dots in a row, with one space
before, and one space after. Or, you can use what is always used in print books,
which is three dots with a space between each dot and a space before and after
the three together . . . like this. The only trouble doing
it like this in an eBook is that sometimes the ellipsis breaks in the middle at
the end of a line in an eBook reading device, which is why I've now gotten in the habit of
doing ellipses like this ... still with a space before and a space after ... because
three dots together is like a three-letter word that will flow unbroken to the next line.
NOTE: Fixing incorrect punctuation marks like this can go a long way towards keeping
your editing costs down, and it will also dramatically reduce the number of DELETE boxes and text changes you'll
have to click to accept changes during the electronic editing process.
LINE SPACING. Use standard double-spacing
throughout with indented paragraphs whose indent has been set in the format
menu. (See "TABS" note below.") If you are planning to publish a
POD book, remember that you're not writing for the
Web, where it is common to start all new paragraphs blocked left with a double
space in between. While many eBooks are now written this way, print books
historically have had indented paragraphs, so I simply style all my books this
way. If you decide to also publish an eBook, you can globally change the manuscript's formatting to block paragraphing
later, if desired.
Do not set ANY
before/after line spacing in the format menu. In the paragraph formatting menu,
all settings should be "0". For the editing process, you simply want to indent each new
paragraph, retaining the standard double spacing throughout the manuscript (see
next point). Later, prior to the typesetting process, your editor or the book
designer will change the double spacing to single spacing, which will reveal any
incorrect line spacing that may have occurred during the editing process.
TABS. NEVER set a tab stop for a new paragraph
indent (which is IMPOSSIBLE to adjust
globally during the typesetting process*). Instead, you MUST set paragraph indents as a first-line indent in the Format
menu. You can set this to .5 for starters and globally change this setting at any time to be more or less,
depending on how the book is to be designed for print or eBook publication. (Every time you hit ENTER, you'll
get the automatic first-line paragraph indent you've set.)
*Lesson Learned: I had decided at the beginning to
typeset my memoir using MS Word, so I formatted my book manuscript exactly as
described in this article, except that I mistakenly set my paragraph
indents using a .5 TAB stop because this has always been considered standard. However, after
realizing that good book design called for
just a .3 paragraph indent instead, I built that setting into my typesetting style sheet
using the first-line indent setting. But that didn't overwrite the tab stop
(merely indented each paragraph another three points); so
during the typesetting process, I had to manually delete every single paragraph
indent in the 296-page book as a result. OUCH!
RIGHT-LEFT INDENTS. In both the Kindle and Nook
eBook, you can have an eBook designed with indented text paragraphs and
right-left indents with flush left alignment (for sidebars, for example); but if
you're going to publish a Smashwords edition, you have to pick either indented
or block paragraphs. In both print and eBook manuscripts, if you want certain text
content to be set off with a right-left indent, it would be better to just make a
"book designer's note" in the text and let that person determine
the degree of indent, because you may choose the standard .5 indent when your
POD or eBook designer may think a wider or shorter indent would look
better. You might include a note like this:
<<<Book designer: Right-Left Indent>>>
<<<End R/L Indent>>>
SIDEBARS. Sidebar text should also include a
special notation since sidebars in a book are usually specially
designed, often with the addition of a graphic image or a different font from
that used in the general text. Different design elements or font sizes may be
incorporated into an eBook.
<<<Book designer: SIDEBAR>>>
WIDOWS AND ORPHANS. Do not use this setting in your manuscript, as
the widows and orphans setting is a typesetting function. Just let your copy flow and let the
lines break where they will. But do start each new chapter on a new page, using
Word's Insert button to insert a page break.
LISTS. Do not use Word's
options for bulleted or numbered lists; just indent each item in a list using an asterisk or a
number. Again, let the book designer design these elements of the book for you, with a note that indicates the kind
of list you'd like:
<<<Set this up as a (bullets/numbers) list>>>
(list of items)
TABLES. Put NOTHING in tables or boxes because this
greatly complicates the electronic editing and typesetting process; further,
Word boxes don't allow or adding editorial comment notes. If you have content that needs to be put in tables, set it up in lists
with a special note indicating that "this content goes in cell one; this in cell 2," etc.:
<<< Set up a table with (X-number) of columns>>>
(content for each cell)
If content needs to be boxed, or is to be formatted as a SIDEBAR, include a similar
note to that effect. Ditto for any illustrations you plan to add in certain areas of the text.
(The editor does not need to see these illustrations; only a reference to them.)
<<<Insert Illustration (number or name) here>>>
TABLE OF CONTENTS. You need to develop your Table of Contents
before you write your book and then refine it as you progress, being sure to add all the subheadings.
But do NOT use Word's T/C formatting option as this creates a big problem in the
typesetting and eBook conversion process. Simply type the Table of Contents as
plain text, and do NOT add page numbers since they will have to be removed. (Page numbers
are one of the last things the typesetter will add after the book has been
formatted for publication, and eBooks have no page numbers at all.)
FOOTNOTES. Another of
Word's helpful features you
must not use in a self-published book is the one for footnotes. Because
the placement of footnotes in a manuscript won't end up on the same pages when
the book has been designed and typeset, they are particularly
problematic during the typesetting process. The typesetter has to manually cut-and-paste footnote content to the bottom of
appropriate pages after the paragraphs have been typeset on that page, which
takes time that will add to the typesetting costs. If you must include a footnote
here and there when a parenthetical explanation won't work, simply add the
footnote reference as a paragraph immediately following the
footnote number, and include an "editor's note" to position that
footnote on the proper typeset page.
If you're doing an eBook, which has no pages, per se, your options are either
to include parenthetical explanations in the text instead of formal footnotes;
or (1) group them at the end of chapters, or (2) include them in an Appendix at
the end of the book. Either way, the latter two options will require the
addition of hyperlinks, which will probably annoy readers and will certainly add
to your book production costs.
PUNCTUATION TIP: Finally . . . use just one space after a period or other closing punctuation
mark. And in punctuating anything inside quotation marks, remember that
the mark generally goes inside, not outside, the mark. (Your editor will know the
few exceptions to this rule.)
Why Only One Space After a Period?
Any old typist knows that we all learned to put two spaces after
a period when using a typewriter, but when desktop publishing hit
the scene, the rule changed because all these extra spaces meant
longer lines and more pages in a book, which increased printing
costs. Today, all paying publishers (magazines, books) require one
space after a period, so if you're submitting work for publication
or self-publishing anything, use your search-and-replace function to
remove all those double spaces after periods, and then do additional
searches for where you put two spaces after a question mark or
Speaking of exclamation marks . . . reserve the use of this mark
for true exclamations.
This article on the Web offers good guidelines for the proper
use of this punctuation mark, which beginning writers ALWAYS abuse.
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